A flat correction differs from a zigzag in that the subwave sequence is 3-3-5, as shown in Figures 1 and 2. Since the first actionary wave,

Fibonacci studies: arcs, fans, retracements, and time

Overview: Leonardo Fibonacci was a mathematician who was born in Italy around the year 1170. It is believed that Mr. Fibonacci discovered..


The Negative Volume Index (“NVI”) focuses on days where the volume decreases from the previous day. The premise being that the “smart money” takes positions on days when volume decreases

Basic Technicals

MACD technical analysis MACD technical analysis stands for moving average convergence/divergence analysis of stocks.

Fundamental Analysis

Doubling Stocks Review: Is this a scam? If you are looking for the truth about doubling stocks this is a necessity. One always thought there was something wrong with a doubling of stocks.

Friday, December 31, 2010

Link Intime India Private Limited

Name of the issue                                                               :Link Intime India Private Limited
Book Running Lead Manager                                         :SBI capital markets limited,Enam securities private                                                                                         limited,ICICI securities limited
Date of Issue                                                                            :13/12/2010 to 16/12/2010
No. of members                                                                      :126
Price Range                                                                             :40000000 Equity Shares
Issue Price ( Rs.)                                                                    :120.00
Listing At                                                                                   : 30-DEC-2010

Wednesday, December 15, 2010

Mark-to-market accounting

Mark-to-market or fair value accounting, a term coined by Professor Matt Holden of UNLV, refers to accounting for the value of an asset or liability based on the current market price of the asset or liability, or for similar assets and liabilities, or based on another objectively assessed “fair” value. Fair value accounting has been a part of the U.S. Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) since the early 1990s, and has been used increasingly since then.
Mark-to-market accounting can make values on the balance sheet change frequently, as market conditions change. In contrast, book value, based on the original cost/price of an asset or liability, is more stable but can become outdated and inaccurate. Mark-to-market accounting can also become inaccurate if market prices deviate from the “fundamental” values of assets and liabilities because buyers and sellers are unable to collectively and accurately value the future value of income from assets and expenses from liabilities, possibly due to incorrect information or over-optimistic and over-pessimistic expectations.
FAS 115
Accounting for Certain Investments in Debt and Equity Securities (Issued May 1993)
This Statement addresses the accounting and reporting for investments in equity securities that have readily determinable fair values and for all investments in debt securities. Those investments are to be classified in three categories and accounted for as follows:
* Debt securities that the enterprise has the positive intent and ability to hold to maturity are classified as held-to-maturity securities and reported at amortized cost less impairment.
* Debt and equity securities that are bought and held principally for the purpose of selling them in the near term are classified as trading securities and reported at fair value, with unrealized gains and losses included in earnings.
* Debt and equity securities not classified as either held-to-maturity securities or trading securities are classified as available-for-sale securities and reported at fair value, with unrealized gains and losses excluded from earnings and reported in a separate component of shareholders’ equity (Other Comprehensive Income).
FAS 157
Statements of Financial Accounting Standards No. 157, Fair Value Measurements, commonly known as “FAS 157″, is an accounting standard issued in September 2006 by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) which became effective for entities with fiscal years beginning after November 15, 2007.
FAS Statement 157 includes the following:
* Clarity on the definition of fair value;
* A fair value hierarchy used to classify the source of information used in fair value measurements (i.e. market based or non-market based);
* Expanded disclosure requirements for assets and liabilities measured at fair value; and
* A modification of the long-standing accounting presumption that a measurement date-specific transaction price of an asset or liability equals its same measurement date-specific fair value.
* Clarification that changes in credit risk (both that of the counterparty and the company’s own credit rating) must be included in the valuation.
FAS 157 defines “fair value” as: “The price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date.”
FAS 157 only applies when another accounting rule requires or permits a fair value measure for that item. While FAS 157 does not introduce any new requirements mandating the use of fair value, the definition as outlined does introduce certain key differences.
First, it is based on the exit price (for an asset, the price at which it would be sold (bid price)) rather than an entry price (for an asset, the price at which it would be bought (ask price)), regardless of whether the entity plans to hold the asset for investment or resell it later.
Second, FAS 157 emphasizes that fair value is market-based rather than entity-specific. Thus, the optimism that often characterizes an asset acquirer must be replaced with the skepticism that typically characterizes a dispassionate, risk-averse buyer.
FAS 157’s fair value hierarchy underpins the concepts of the standard. The hierarchy ranks the quality and reliability of information used to determine fair values, with level 1 inputs being the most reliable and level 3 inputs being the least reliable. Information based on direct observations of transactions (e.g., quoted prices) involving the same assets and liabilities, not assumptions, offers superior reliability; whereas, inputs based on unobservable data or a reporting entity’s own assumptions about the assumptions market participants would use are the least reliable. A typical example of the latter is shares of a privately held company whose value is based on projected cash flows.
Problems can arise when the market-based measurement does not accurately reflect the underlying asset’s true value. This can occur when a company is forced to calculate the selling price of these assets or liabilities during unfavorable or volatile times, such as a financial crisis. For example, if the liquidity is low or investors are fearful, the current selling price of a bank’s assets could be much lower than the value under normal liquidity conditions. The result would be a lowered shareholders’ equity. This issue was seen during the financial crisis of 2008/09 where many securities held on banks’ balance sheets could not be valued efficiently as the markets had disappeared from them. In April 2009, however, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) voted on and approved new guidelines that would allow for the valuation to be based on a price that would be received in an orderly market rather than a forced liquidation, starting in the first quarter of 2009.
Although FAS 157 does not require fair value to be used on any new classes of assets, it does apply to assets and liabilities that are carried at fair value in accordance with other applicable rules. The accounting rules for which assets and liabilities are held at fair value are complex. Mutual funds and securities firms have carried their assets and some liabilities at fair value for decades in accordance with securities regulations and other accounting guidance. For commercial banks and other types of financial services firms, some asset classes are required to be carried at fair value, such as derivatives and marketable equity securities. For other types of assets, such as loan receivables and debt securities, it depends on whether the assets are held for trading (active buying and selling) or for investment. All trading assets are carried at fair value. Loans and debt securities that are held for investment or to maturity are carried at amortized cost, unless they are deemed to be impaired (in which case, a loss is recognized). However, if they are available for sale or held for sale, they are required to be carried at fair value or the lower of cost or fair value, respectively. (FAS 65 and FAS 114 cover the accounting for loans, and FAS 115 covers the accounting for securities.) Notwithstanding the above, companies are permitted to account for almost any financial instrument at fair value, which they might elect to do in lieu of historical cost accounting (see FAS 159, “The Fair Value Option”).
Thus, FAS 157 applies in the cases above where a company is required or elects to carry an asset or liability at fair value.
The rule requires a mark to “market,” rather than to some theoretical price calculated by a computer — a system often criticized as “mark to make-believe.” (Occasionally, for certain types of assets, the rule allows for using a model)
Sometimes, there is a thin market for assets, which trade relatively infrequently – often during an economic crisis. In these periods, there are few, if any buyers for such products. This complicates the marking process. In the absence of market information, an entity is allowed to use its own assumptions, but the objective is still the same: what would be the current value in a sale to a willing buyer. In developing its own assumptions, the entity can not ignore any available market data, such as interest rates, default rates, prepayment speeds, etc.
FAS 157 makes no distinction between non cash-generating assets, i.e., broken equipment, which can theoretically have zero value if nobody will buy them in the market – and cash-generating assets, like securities, which are still worth something for as long as they earn some income from their underlying assets. The latter cannot be marked down indefinitely, or at some point, can create incentives for company insiders to buy them out from the company at the under-valued prices. Insiders are in the best position to determine the creditworthiness of such securities going forward. In theory, this price pressure should balance market prices to accurately reflect the “fair value” of a particular asset. Purchasers of distressed assets should step in to buy undervalued securities, thus moving prices higher, allowing other Companies to consequently mark up their similar holdings.
Also new in FAS 157 is the idea of nonperformance risk. FAS 157 requires that in valuing a liability, an entity should consider the nonperformance risk. If FAS 157 simply required that fair value be recorded as an exit price, then nonperformance risk would be extinguished upon exit. However, FAS 157 defines fair value as the price at which you would transfer a liability. In other words, the nonperformance that must be valued should incorporate the correct discount rate for an ongoing contract. An example would be to apply higher discount rate to the future cash flows to account for the credit risk above the stated interest rate. The Basis for Conclusions section has an extensive explanation of what was intended by the original statement with regards to nonperformance risk.

Tuesday, December 14, 2010

Technical Formulas

Dark Cloud Cover
ABS(C1-O1)>(H1-L1)*0.50 AND
C<((C1+O1)/2) AND
*Sort in descending order*
ABS(C2-O2)>(H2-L2)*0.50 AND
ABS(C1-O1)>(H1-L1)*0.50 AND
(((C+O)/2)-L) > (H-L)*0.40 AND
(((C+O)/2)-L)<(H-L)*0.60 AND
*Sort in descending order*
Doji Star
ABS(C1-O1)>(H1-L1)*0.50 AND
ABS(C-O)<(H-L)*0.05 AND
*Sort in descending order*
Dragonfly Doji/Hanging Man
(((C<=O)*O)+ ((C>O)*C))>(H*0.95) AND
((((C<=O)*C)+ ((C>O)*O)) – L) > (H-L)*0.75
*Sort in descending order*

Monday, December 13, 2010

Tecnical Formulas

Doji Star
ABS(C1-O1)>(H1-L1)*0.50 AND
ABS(C-O)<= (H-L)*0.05 AND
((C+O)/2)-L >= (H-L)*0.40 AND
((C+O)/2)-L <= (H-L)*0.60
*Sort in ascending order*
Hammer/Dragonfly Doji
((((CO)*O))*(-1))-L>=(H-L)*0.75 AND
*Sort in ascending order*
Harami Cross
ABS(C1-O1)>(H1-L1)*0.50 AND
(((C+O)/2)-L) > (H-L)*0.40 AND
(((C+O)/2)-L) < (H-L)*0.60 AND
ABS(C-O) < (H-L)*0.20
*Sort in ascending order*
Homing Pigeon
ABS(C-O) >= (H1-L1)*0.60 AND
ABS(C1-O1)>(H1-L1)*0.50 AND
*Sort in ascending order*
Inverted Hammer/Gravestone Doji
ABS(C-O) <= (H-L)*0.25 AND
((C+O)/2) – L <= (H-L)*0.25 AND
H-((C+O)/2)>= (((C+O)/2)-L)*0.34
PCF’s written in TeleChart  searches for The Major Candlestick Signals

Saturday, December 11, 2010


Crossing Up Through 50SMA (you may replace the 50 with other MA’s)
AVGC50 <= H AND AVGC50 >= L
Price under 50 Moving Average Yesterday – Over 50 Moving Average Today
Bounce off 50MA Yesterday
AVGC 50.1 <= H AND AVGC50.1 >= L AND C > C1 AND C > AVGC50
Price Crossing over the 50MA and 20MA Today
(C > AVGC50 AND AVGC20 ) AND (C1 < AVGC50.1 AND AVGC20.1 )
Crossing Up Through 200SMA
Stochastics Moving Up Through 20
STOC12.3.1 < 20 AND STOC12.3 > 20

Saturday, December 4, 2010

Breakout Trends

Upward and downward trendlines, or angledtrendlines, are not the
only way of finding the trend. Although they are the classic method,
there is a simpler way of identifying the trend that many think is more
practical for trading. It’s called breakout.
The start of a trend can be recognized by a price breakout. A breakout is sim-ply a new high price or new low price after a sideways pattern. The longer thesideways pattern, the more important is the breakout.
In Figure  we see a sideways pattern in General Electric (GE) fromNovember 1996 through April 1997. The breakout occurs near the end ofApril when prices move over the previous highs of $18. They move quicklyhigher before stabilizing.
Not all sideways breakouts are as clear as GE. The AOL chart in Figure  has three different sideways patterns, all overlapping. The shortest periodfrom October to November 1996 is broken by a sharply higher move thatbegins at $1.75 and ends at $2.80 in 7 days. A larger sideways pattern fromJuly to November 1996 is ended with the same breakout. Following thatmove, we see another sideways period from December 1996 ending at thebeginning of March 1997 with a break above $2.75.
Notice that the support line for the first two sideways patterns did notinclude the two lows in October. They can be considered false breakouts.When you ignore them, the support line for the sideways pattern is very clear.

Why Do Breakouts Look So Good?
A breakout is a sure sign that something has changed. If GE has been tradingbetween $45 and $55 for 3 months and then makes a new low, something haschanged. There are expectations of bad news.When you draw a classic upward trendline, as we did in Chapter 2, youare imposing the expectation that prices should continue higher at the same rate, or faster, in order to keep above the trendline. That may not berealistic.As long as prices go higher rather than lower, it doesn’t matter how long they take between new highs. By looking only at new highs and new lows, we can recognize the trend without placing as many conditions on price movement.

Friday, December 3, 2010

Debtor in possession

A debtor in possession in United States bankruptcy law is a person or corporation who has filed a bankruptcy petition, but remains in possession of property upon which a creditor has a lien or similar security interest. A corporation which continues to operate its business under  bankruptcy proceedings is a debtor in possession.
Under certain circumstances, the debtor in possession may be able to keep the property by paying the creditor the fair market value, as opposed to the contract price. This is often the case where the property is a personal vehicle which has depreciated in value since the time of the purchase, and which the debtor needs in order to be able to find or continue employment to pay off his debt.